Posts Tagged “Education”
- We call upon the federal government to develop with Aboriginal groups a joint strategy to eliminate educational and employment gaps between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians.
7. Call to action number seven calls for all levels of government in Canada to do their utmost to reduce employment and education gaps between Aboriginals and non-aboriginals. Aboriginals and non-aboriginals have historically experienced an enormous gap in income, education, incarceration rates and many other socio-economic areas. The implementation of this particular call to action would more than likely result in these gaps being decreased if not entirely eliminated.
Compiled by: Chris Vanderburgh
- We call upon the federal government to eliminate the discrepancy in federal education funding for First Nations children being educated on reserves and those First Nations children being educated off reserves.
8. Call to action number eight calls for the federal government to eliminate the gap in funding for aboriginals children’s education. Eliminating this gap would result in a better education for aboriginal children which would allow them to pursue post-secondary education ultimately resulting in better opportunities for them as adults. First Nations children under 6 years of age living off reserve are more than twice as likely to live in low income families as compared to other Canadians.
Compiled by: Chris Vanderburgh
- We call upon the federal government to prepare and publish annual reports comparing funding for the education of First Nations children on and off reserves, as well as educational and income attainments of Aboriginal peoples in Canada compared with non- Aboriginal people.
9. Call to action number nine calls on the Federal government to create reports annually on the education funding received for Aboriginal children as well as educational and income comparisons between Aboriginals and non-aboriginals. This call to action would ensure that calls to action numbers seven and eight could be implemented smoothly given that there is a lack of data on the various gaps in income and education between aboriginals and non- aboriginals.
Compiled by: Chris Vanderburgh
10. We call on the federal government to draft new Aboriginal education legislation with the full participation and informed consent of Aboriginal peoples. The new legislation would include a commitment to sufficient funding and would incorporate the following principles:
i. Providing sufficient funding to close identified educational achievement gaps within one generation.
ii. Improving education attainment levels and success rates.
iii. Developing culturally appropriate curricula.
iv. Protecting the right to Aboriginal languages, including the teaching of Aboriginal languages as credit courses.
v. Enabling parental and community responsibility, control, and accountability, similar to what parents enjoy in public school systems.
vi. Enabling parents to fully participate in the education of their children.
vii. Respecting and honouring Treaty relationships.
There is limited access to quality education at all levels in Aboriginal communities, especially in the North and in rural areas, and education is underfunded at all levels for Aboriginal youth. Over the past 15 years, there has been no measurable improvement in high school completion rates: 41% of First Nations youth living off-reserve do not complete high school, while 58% of First Nations youth living on-reserve do not. Only 6% of Canada’s Aboriginal population holds a university degree, relative to over 22% of Canadians overall.
Aboriginal Canadians are, however, Canada’s youngest and fastest-growing population, but despite this generation of youth being the first generation not to have experienced residential schools, there may be a lingering sense of distrust towards education within their families. This Call to Action aims to include Aboriginal communities in developing solutions for these problems, including increasing education funding and ensuring that curricula meet the needs of Aboriginal youth.
Further reading: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/education/widening-education-gap-leaves-aboriginal-canadians-further-behind/article14738527/
Compiled by: Grant Oyston
11. We call upon the federal government to provide adequate funding to end the backlog of First Nations students seeking a post-secondary education.
The department formerly known as INAC (now Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada) underfunds First Nations post-secondary students. In 2010, the annual budget was set at $400 million for 27,000 First Nations post-secondary students, but the number of applicants far exceeds that, and in the preceding year more than 5,000 eligible students were denied funding outright. This Call to Action urges the Government of Canada to ensure that adequate funding is available for qualified First Nations students who wish to continue their education. The availability of post-secondary education is essential to enabling Aboriginal youth to maximize their participation in Canada’s economy.
Compiled by: Grant Oyston
12. We call upon the federal, provincial, territorial, and Aboriginal governments to develop culturally appropriate early childhood education programs for Aboriginal families.
16. We call upon post-secondary institutions to create university and college degree and diploma programs in Aboriginal languages.
Australia has already implemented a masters program in Indigenous Languages.
The University of Victoria already offers an Aboriginal Language Revitalization program. There seem to be a number of programs i.e. the Aboriginal Language Initiative funded by the Department of Canadian Heritage to support projects that maintain, revitalize and First Nations languages.
Compiled by: Hillary Smith
Cultural safety training is a key part of reconciliation. With a greater sense of cultural awareness across the healthcare sector, proper understanding and respect can be giving to indigenous patients.
What other aspects of public policy would cultural safety training benefit?
- Cultural Safety in Healthcare, National Collaborating Centre for Aboriginal Health
- Aboriginal Peoples Enrolment in Medical School, McMaster University
- Welcome to IPAC, Indigenous Physicians Association of Canada
Compiled by: Samuel Bigelow
24. We call upon medical and nursing schools in Canada to require all students to take a course dealing with Aboriginal health issues, including the history and legacy of residential schools, the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Treaties and Aboriginal rights, and Indigenous teachings and practices. This will require skills-based training in intercultural competency, conflict resolution, human rights, and anti-racism.
Aboriginal-Canadians have a higher risk factor for many diseases, mental health issues and being discriminated against. All of these factors determine the overall health of humans.
Medical personnel including doctors, nurses, psychologists, etc. should be required to take a specialized course that help with the understanding of Aboriginal peoples history, including the negative legacy of residential schools and the role of social determinants of health. The development must have Aboriginal input.
- Improving Health Outcomes for Aboriginal Peoples, Fraser Health Aboriginal Health
Compiled By: Morgan Visser
27. “We call upon the Federation of Law Societies of Canada to ensure that lawyers receive appropriate cultural competency training, which includes the history and legacy of residential schools, the United Nations Declaration on Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Treaties and Aboriginal rights, Indigenous law, and Aboriginal-Crown relations. This will require skills-based training in intercultural competency, conflict resolution, human rights, and anti-racism”
Cultural Competency is the idea that if a professional is working in an area that works directly or indirectly with a different culture that the professional will be respectful and knowledgeable about that culture.
This recommendation focuses on the importance of lawyers having a well rounded knowledge as they practice law within Canada. Cultural competency training for lawyers is an important step in reconciliation between the legal system of Canada and Aboriginal peoples. It would also teach lawyers to be respectful of cultural differences and be prepared for all factors that could relate to their cases and clients. Lawyers should be as aware and knowledgeable about Aboriginal concerns and culture as they are about any others in Canada.
The recommendation address the racism and treatment towards Aboriginal people within the legal system and also addresses the lack of knowledge of those who work in positions which involve cross-cultural relations.
Cultural competency training could be implemented in a number of ways. It becoming a part of curriculum at law schools or law firms could provide seminars or training course.
- Cultural Competency – Canada’s History and Today’s Physician, College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia
- Indigenous Cultural Competency Training Program, Provincial Health Services BC
Compiled by: Arryn Benson
28. We Call upon law schools in Canada to require all law students to take a course in Aboriginal people and the law, which includes the history and legacy of residential schools, the United Nations Declaration on Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Treaties and Aboriginal rights, Indigenous law, and Aboriginal-Crown relations. This will require skills-based training in intercultural competency. conflict resolution, human rights, and anti-racism
This recommendation focuses on the importance of including Aboriginal law within the Canadian legal system. By recommending that it become mandatory for all law students to study Aboriginal people and their law. The recommendation provides specifications for the curriculum and starting points for what courses in this subject could look like.
If there is going to be a change in the relationship between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples in Canada, it will come from younger generations. There is a vast area of knowledge about law and history in our country that is being neglected, if the legal system is to change, become fair for all peoples, then future lawyers should have all the knowledge they can. In short it is not only will it aid in reconciliation but it would also benefit Canada’s justice system. Canada is a diverse country, lawyers practicing in Canada should have a diverse background in their studies of law to reflect that. Furthermore, it would allow aboriginal law and culture to be taken seriously.
The point of this recommendation is to allow for reconciliation between the justice system and Aboriginal peoples. Considering that at the moment the majority of those imprisoned or in court are Aboriginal people things would be less unequal and stupid if those within the legal system had a working knowledge of Aboriginal rights, law, treaties, relations and history.
There are a number of ways this recommendation could be implemented. It starts as simple as adding Aboriginal law classes into the curriculum – as mandatory courses. Universities could employ professors with knowledge of the laws within that area, have a seminar with different guest who can share the different views of aboriginal law depending on which region they are from, and different learning and skill based workshops in undergraduate studies and in graduate studies.
This article written by a professor at UVic discusses what has been done in regards to recommendations 27 and 28 as well as what else can and should be done.
Though this article was released a few years before the release of the recommendations, it addresses what UBC has done in making the study of Aboriginal rights and treaties mandatory for their law students. Maybe the article and this case will demonstrate to other law schools and universities in Canada how easy it is to make these studies apart of the curriculum.
This blog post, discusses one professor’s syllabus for a course Indigenous Legal Traditions at Lakehead University.
Compiled by Arryn Benson
29. We call upon the parties and, in particular, the federal government, to work collaboratively with plaintiffs not included in the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement to have disputed legal issues determined expeditiously on an agreed set of facts.
This recommendation aims to readdresses through a fair and public inquiry, the abuses faced by former students who were supposed to be compensated fairly by the IRSSA. Private law practitioners exploited their indigenous clients who were at a socioeconomic disadvantage to understand these legal processes, and a more relatable legal team without insidious agendas would prevent that from happening again. This recommendation calls for that justice to finally begin to be served.
The Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement is the largest class action settlement that has ever occurred in the Canadian legal system; this settlement calls to address the severe cultural, mental, and systematic problems that arose from the existence of residential schools on Canadian soil. With the implementation of the Indian Act over 100 years ago, the Canadian government began taking children from their homes and communities, and enrolling them in mandatory Catholic or Protestant school systems.
The children were essentially held captive; they were banned from practicing their respective religion, speaking their own language, or communicating with their families…all in an effort to destroy Native American culture. This was not the only problem faced by indigenous children, they also endured tremendous psychological, physical, and sexual abuse at the hands of their ‘educators’, actions that still need to be addressed and reprimanded by the Canadian government. Thousands of indigenous peoples would benefit from expeditious parties determining if the IRSSA has biased clauses discrediting the struggles endures by indigenous communities.
50. In keeping with the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, we call upon the federal government, in collaboration with Aboriginal organizations, to fund the establishment of Indigenous law institutes for the development, use, and understanding of Indigenous laws and access to justice in accordance with the unique cultures of Aboriginal peoples in Canada.
In a few words: Fund Indigenous law institutes!
Recognize that Canada has more than one legal system! Canada already recognizes both common law and civil law; Canada needs to recognize indigenous law too.
When it comes to funding Indigenous law institutes, this means funding programs such as legal support networks for Indigenous peoples within the court system. Some of these programs allow Indigenous people who have been accused of a crime to receive sentencing in traditional healing circles, rather than in the court.
This also of course means developing our understanding of indigenous law, which is most obviously done within universities. Law schools in Canada need to continue to make greater strides in teaching Indigenous law to their students!
Native Law, University of Saskatchewan.
Compiled by Jonathan Wearing
55. We call upon all levels of government to provide annual reports or any current data requested by the National Council for Reconciliation so that it can report on the progress towards reconciliation. The reports or data would include, but not be limited to:
i. The number of Aboriginal children—including Métis and Inuit children—in care, compared with non-Aboriginal children, the reasons for apprehension, and the total spending on preventive and care services by child-welfare agencies.
ii. Comparative funding for the education of First Nations children on and off reserves.
iii. The educational and income attainments of Aboriginal peoples in Canada compared with nonAboriginal people.
iv. Progress on closing the gaps between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal communities in a number of health indicators such as: infant mortality, maternal health, suicide, mental health, addictions, life expectancy, birth rates, infant and child health issues, chronic diseases, illness and injury incidence, and the availability of appropriate health services.
v. Progress on eliminating the overrepresentation of Aboriginal children in youth custody over the next decade.
vi. Progress on reducing the rate of criminal victimization of Aboriginal people, including data related to homicide and family violence victimization and other crimes.
vii. Progress on reducing the overrepresentation of Aboriginal people in the justice and correctional systems.
Essentially, the TRC recommends that all levels of government provide annual reports or current date that is requested by the National Council for Reconciliation directly tied to the goal of reconciliation.
These reports and current data would directly relate to current issues like the number of Aboriginal children in care, funding for the education of First Nations children both on and off reserves, educational and income attainments Aboriginal peoples in comparison to non-Aboriginal peoples, the over-representation of Aboriginal peoples in the criminal justice system and more.
The case of wrongfully convicted Donald Marshall who was one of the many Aboriginal peoples victim of the racial prejudice by the Canadian criminal justice system. Marshall was convicted of murder, at 17, and imprisoned for 11 years for a crime he didn’t commit. By the time he was finally released on parole in 1982, he was forever damaged by a miscarriage of justice and years of detention.
“For most Canadians, an unlimited supply of clean water flowing freely from a tap and imperceptibly whisking away their waste at the simple push of a lever is a given; for many First Nations, it’s a luxury their communities can’t afford.”
57. We call upon federal, provincial, territorial, and municipal governments to provide education to public servants on the history of Aboriginal peoples, including the history and legacy of residential schools, the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Treaties and Aboriginal rights, Indigenous law, and Aboriginal–Crown relations. This will require skills- based training in intercultural competency, conflict resolution, human rights, and anti-racism.
57. We call upon federal, provincial, territorial, and municipal governments to provide education to public servants on the history of Aboriginal peoples, including the history and legacy of residential schools, the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Treaties and Aboriginal rights, Indigenous law, and Aboriginal–Crown relations. This will require skills based training in intercultural competency, conflict resolution, human rights, and anti-racism.
“Education should be providing to public servants regarding the misinformation of treatment and the history of Aboriginal Peoples. Public servant workers need to have intercultural competency, conflict resolution, human rights, and anti-racism skills. Integration of aboriginal people within the public servants would also help with the integration of understanding aboriginal rights and laws within the country”
Carolyn Bennett – Minister of Indigenous and Northern Affairs
Compiled by Véronique Russell
60. We call upon leaders of the church parties to the Settlement Agreement and all other faiths, in collaboration with Indigenous spiritual leaders, Survivors, schools of theology, seminaries, and other religious training centres, to develop and teach curriculum for all student clergy, and all clergy and staff who work in Aboriginal communities, on the need to respect Indigenous spirituality in its own right, the history and legacy of residential schools and the roles of the church parties in that system, the history and legacy of religious conflict in Aboriginal families and communities, and the responsibility that churches have to mitigate such conflicts and prevent spiritual violence.
In a few words: Train individuals in religious cultural safety
What does this mean in simple English?
In a religiously pluralistic country such as Canada, it is crucially important for people of different faiths to understand each other. Even if we do not all agree, we need to understand each other’s differences, and find our common ground. Indirectly, this recommendation calls all faiths to better understand each other.
More specifically, this recommendation especially calls to action Christian groups, and even more specifically churches that were involved in the residential schools system. If there is to be full reconciliation for the survivors of residential schools, church groups need to not only apologize and make amends, but also ensure the same sort of the thing never happens again. In part, as this recommendation states, this means educating future religious leaders in the differences of Indigenous culture.
From a policy perspective, this is a very difficult recommendation to universally implement, as there is no central authority to implement change in religious education. Rather, it is up to each individual religious group to play its own part in working towards reconciliation through cultural education.
Compiled by Jonathan Wearing
61. We call upon church parties to the Settlement Agreement, in collaboration with Survivors and representatives of Aboriginal organizations, to establish permanent funding to Aboriginal people for:
i. Community-controlled healing and reconciliation projects.
ii. Community-controlled culture- and language revitalization projects.
iii. Community-controlled education and relationship building projects.
iv. Regional dialogues for Indigenous spiritual leaders and youth to discuss Indigenous spirituality, self-determination, and reconciliation.
In a few words: Churches should provide funding for Indigenous healing projects
What does this mean in simple English?
Given that this recommendation comes with a lot of financial cost attached, this recommendation might at first seem a little demanding towards religious groups. One might ask why it should be religious groups, and not the government who funds these programs. Is it unreasonable that churches should pay for these healing programs? Based on the fact many churches spent significant amounts of money administering residential schools—programs which severely damaged many Indigenous individuals—it is not unreasonable to think it would be right for churches to provide money to work towards healing for individuals and communities affected by residential schools.
Again, from a policy perspective, a response such as this will be very hard to implement across the board, but will be the responsibility of each individual religious group. Individual people can help make a difference, if applicable, by calling upon their own individual religious groups to pay attention to this recommendation.
Compiled by Jonathan Wearing
62. We call upon the federal, provincial, and territorial governments, in consultation and collaboration with Survivors, Aboriginal peoples, and educators, to
i. Make age-appropriate curriculum on residential schools, Treaties, and Aboriginal peoples’ historical and contemporary contributions to Canada a mandatory education requirement for Kindergarten to Grade Twelve students
ii. Provide the necessary funding to post-secondary institutions to educate teachers on how to integrate Indigenous knowledge and teaching methods into classrooms.
iii. Provide the necessary funding to Aboriginal schools to utilize Indigenous knowledge and teaching methods in classrooms
iv. Establish senior-level positions in government at the assistant deputy minister level or higher dedicated to Aboriginal content in education.
In order for indigenous and non-indigenous peoples to coexist peacefully, a relationship must be built on understanding and respect. The TRC recommends that Canada indigenize public school curricula in order to educate students on the culture of indigenous peoples, and the history of residential schools – thereby explaining a key reason why reconciliation is important.
Incorporating indigenous knowledge in education is not only useful in building stronger intercultural relationships, and making the classroom more inviting to aboriginal students, it is also provides alternative ways of teaching many concepts to children especially when it comes to topics related to the environment. Some schools that incorporated indigenous learning into their curricula had lessons where students went on nature hikes, and learned how to grow traditional plants (http://thetyee.ca/News/2012/09/10/BC-Aboriginal-Education/).
Indigenizing education does not simply mean adding a chapter about residential schools to the textbook; it means including an indigenous perspective in schools that would involve getting lessons from elders, taking nature walks to understand science, studying indigenous language, and ultimately learning what it means to coexist in a just and peaceful way.
Learning About Walking in Beauty: Placing Aboriginal Perspectives in Canadian Classrooms
Related reading-2: BC’s public educational broadcaster celebrates thirteen BC First Nations languages and a drive to preserve them for future generations.
63. We call upon the Council of Ministers of Education, Canada to maintain an annual commitment to Aboriginal education issues, including:
i. Developing and implementing Kindergarten to Grade Twelve curriculum and learning resources on Aboriginal peoples in Canadian history, and the history and legacy of residential schools.
ii. Sharing information and best practices on teaching curriculum related to residential schools and Aboriginal history.
iii. Building student capacity for intercultural understanding, empathy, and mutual respect.
iv. Identifying teacher-training needs relating to the above.
This TRC call to action asks for the commitment of the Council of Ministers of Education in Canada to maintain a commitment to Aboriginal education issues; from creating and applying the use of K-12 curriculum and learning resources on Aboriginal peoples Canadian history, including the tragic history of residential schools. To developing an intercultural understanding, and identifying appropriate teacher-training needs to address these issues.
The Website for the Council of Ministers of Education in Canada in its Programs and Initiatives section detailing the current programs and initiatives. It also presents four overarching goals for education in Canada, ministers have identified key activity areas on which they will focus collaboratively through CMEC. Click below for more information.
64. We call upon all levels of government that provide public funds to denominational schools to require such schools to provide an education on comparative religious studies, which must include a segment on Aboriginal spiritual beliefs and practices developed in collaboration with Aboriginal Elders.
64 . We call upon all levels of government that provide public funds to denominational schools to require such schools to provide an education on comparative religious studies, which must include a segment on Aboriginal spiritual beliefs and practices developed in collaboration with Aboriginal Elders.All schools should educate their students about Canadian Aboriginal Spiritual Beliefs and practices apart of their curriculum to demonstrate their support but also acknowledgement of the many different cultures found within the country.
Compiled by: Véronique Russell
65. We call upon the federal government, through the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council, and in collaboration with Aboriginal peoples, post-secondary institutions and educators, and the National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation and its partner institutions, to establish a national research program with multi-year funding to advance understanding of reconciliation.
“The Ottawa-based Centre for the Study of Living Standards estimates that more than $170-billion could be added to Canada’s economy by 2026 if natives achieved the same education levels as other Canadians.” – D’arcy Levesque (Globe and Mail)
Reconciliation has proven to be a challenge throughout Canadian history. One reason why there has been little little progress towards building a harmonious and respectful society is because of the lack of awareness of the honest realities of Indigenous and colonial histories. A research program is essential for successful reconciliation in order to advance wide spread understandings, access necessary information and raise awareness of the issue. What can we do to make “our best” better, and understand the importance of reconciliation? Involving post-secondary institutions in a research program of this nature would get more youth involved and informed of the subject of reconciliation. Educated youth are vital reconciliation because they are the future. A research program would also give those involved opportunities to work closely with Indigenous peoples and build meaningful relationships. It is important that we accomplish this goal in order to ensure our future generations have the knowledge to foster reconciliation. How would Canada look today if past generations were involved in a this program?
The Vancouver Sun – Reconciliation through Education: Justice Murray Sinclair’s appeal <http://blogs.vancouversun.com/2012/11/28/reconciliation-through-education-justice-murray-sinclairs-appeal/>
Compiled by: Laura Moore
66. We call upon the federal government to establish multi-year funding for community-based youth organizations to deliver programs on reconciliation, and establish a national network to share information and best practices.
“A knowledge of history leads to understanding, and understanding leads to respect. Reconciliation follows.” – Justice Murray Sinclair”
One of the most necessary ways we can create a better future for aboriginals is by providing supportive education and organizations.The implementation of aboriginal support groups and national networks will address this need through educate youth in aboriginal affairs and connect people all over the country. Within Canada 30% of off-reserve aboriginals fail out of high school, 58% of on-reserve fail out, and a total of 70% fail out in the province of Manitoba. These numbers are staggering especially when comparison to the 10% drop-out rate of non-aboriginal Canadians. Another factor to consider is that the employment rate of First Nations without a high school education is just 25%, with a median annual income of just $12,000. For this recommendation to truly succeed, Canada needs to do a better job in the public education sector by creating a more successful and motivating environment for First Nations students; to make them want to succeed and break away from age old trends.
The Globe and Mail – Widening education gap leaves aboriginal Canadians further behind <http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/education/widening-education-gap-leaves-aboriginal-canadians-further-behind/article14738527/>
78. We call upon the Government of Canada to commit to making a funding contribution of $10 million over seven years to the National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation, plus an additional amount to assist communities to research and produce histories of their own residential school experience and their involvement in truth, healing, and reconciliation.
The need for financial assistance from the Government of Canada for the National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation and to help communities in researching and producing histories of their residential school experiences in a very important part of reconciliation across Canada. This will ensure that the TRC is able to be properly funded and able to further research on the affects residential schools had on Indigenous people while helping safe-keep cultural beliefs and practices. It is very important that their stories do not go left untold, as so that history does not repeat itself.
Compiled by: Nicole Elie
We call upon Canadian journalism programs and media schools to require education for all students on the history of Aboriginal peoples, including the history and legacy of residential schools, the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Treaties and Aboriginal rights, Indigenous law, and Aboriginal–Crown relations.
Parents of First Nations students on reserves express the fear that their children are failing to develop a positive sense of their identity and that curricula rarely reflects their children’s true history, diverse cultures and languages and their contributions to Canada.
The call would require aboriginal authors and historians that document the treaties and laws for students. University of Saskatchewan has implemented centers to promote strategies and solutions for legal issues and allowing financial and resources for those in the community and students of the school alike.
Compiled By: Aaron Furbert
We call upon the federal government, in collaboration with the national Aboriginal organizations, to revise the information kit for newcomers to Canada and its citizenship test to reflect a more inclusive history of the diverse Aboriginal peoples of Canada, including information about the Treaties and the history of residential schools.
Currently, newcomers to Canada learn very little about the aboriginal people in their new country, and the Canadian citizenship test does not address Canadian aboriginals nearly as well as they should. Would you want to go to a new country and know next to nothing about a very significant part of its history? Immigrants are required to learn about many aspects of Canada’s history in order to pass the country’s citizenship test. However, the information given, and the test questions themselves seriously neglect to provide information on first nations, metis, and Inuit peoples. Think about why this matters. Take a minute and think about how you would feel if you played an important role of the history of your country, and things would be significantly different without your people’s presence, but no effort was made to inform new citizens of that important part of their new country’s past. Why does Canada neglect such a significant part of its history?
Compiled by: Laura Moore